The vertical supports for the car’s window area or greenhouse are known as pillars, and they are typically labeled alphabetically. The main pillars are:

  1. A-pillar: The front-most pillar, located on each side of the windshield.

  2. B-pillar: The second pillar, positioned between the front and rear doors.

  3. C-pillar: The third pillar, found at the rear edge of the rear side windows.

  4. D-pillar: In some larger vehicles, there may be a D-pillar, which is located at the rear edge of the rear window.

These pillars play a crucial role in providing structural support to the vehicle and also contribute to the overall safety of the car. Additionally, they define the design and aesthetics of the vehicle’s exterior.


The front portion of a car that covers the engine, battery, fan, radiator, and other essential components is commonly referred to as either the “bonnet” or the “hood.” The term used often depends on regional variations in English. In British English, “bonnet” is the more commonly used term, while in American English, “hood” is the preferred term. Despite the difference in terminology, both words describe the same part of the vehicle.


The rear area of a car, separate from the passenger compartment, used for storing luggage, groceries, or other items is known as the “boot” in British English and “trunk” in American English. Both terms refer to the same part of the vehicle, and the choice of terminology often depends on regional variations in English.


The area just below the windshield, often referred to as the base of the windshield, is known as the cowl. The cowl is an important structural and design element in a vehicle, providing support to the windshield and serving as a barrier to prevent water, debris, and other elements from entering the engine compartment. Additionally, the cowl may house components such as the windshield wipers and their motor, as well as other ventilation systems for the vehicle.


  1. Fender: The fender is the part of the car body that frames the wheel well. It is located above and around the wheel and is designed to prevent mud, rocks, and other debris from being thrown into the air by the rotating tire. Fenders are typically found at the front and rear of the vehicle.

  2. Quarter Panel: The quarter panel, on the other hand, refers to the body panel that extends from the rear door to the trunk area (for sedans) or from the rear door to the rear bumper (for SUVs or some hatchbacks). It is called the quarter panel because it represents roughly one-fourth of the car’s body when looking at it from the side.

While both the fender and the quarter panel are parts of the car’s exterior body, they serve different purposes and are located in different areas. The fender is associated with the wheel wells, while the quarter panel is a larger body panel that spans a significant portion of the side or rear of the vehicle.


The front header and Rear Header are designed to enhance the overall structural integrity of the vehicle. It contributes to the strength and rigidity of the front and rear section, helping to maintain the car’s shape and protect occupants in the event of a collision.

The front and rear header serves as a mounting point for various front-end components, such as the radiator, headlights, grille, rear lights, trunk or tailgate, and other rear body panels of the car.


The car roof is a critical component of a vehicle’s body, providing protection, structural integrity, and contributing to the overall aesthetics. Here are key aspects related to car roofs:

  1. Structural Integrity: The roof is an integral part of the vehicle’s structure, helping to maintain its overall strength and rigidity. It contributes to the safety of the vehicle’s occupants by providing support in the event of a rollover or other impacts.

  2. Materials: Car roofs are typically constructed using various materials, depending on the vehicle’s design and manufacturing considerations. Common materials include steel, aluminum, and, in some cases, composite materials. The choice of material affects factors such as weight, safety, and cost.

  3. Roof Styles:

    • Sedan Roof: Found on traditional four-door sedans, with a single, solid roof structure.
    • Coupe Roof: Typically features a lower and more streamlined roofline compared to sedans, often with two doors.
    • Convertible Roof: Can be either soft (fabric) or hard (metal) and is designed to be retractable, allowing for an open-top driving experience.
    • SUV and Crossover Roofs: Vary widely, including designs such as panoramic sunroofs and roof rails for additional functionality.
  4. Sunroofs and Moon roofs: Some vehicles have optional sunroofs or moon roofs, which are transparent or translucent panels in the roof that can be opened or closed. They provide additional natural light and ventilation to the interior.


Car doors are crucial components of a vehicle, providing access to the interior, safety for occupants, and contributing to the overall structural integrity. Here are key aspects related to car doors:

  1. Materials: Car doors are typically made of materials such as steel, aluminum, or a combination of both. The choice of materials influences factors such as weight, strength, and safety.

  2. Door Types:

    • Conventional Hinged Doors: Standard doors that open outward or inward on hinges. Most common in sedans and coupes.
    • Sliding Doors: Found in some minivans and vans, sliding doors open by sliding horizontally.
    • Suicide Doors: Rear-hinged doors that open in the opposite direction of conventional doors. Less common due to safety concerns.
    • Gull wing Doors: Hinged at the roof rather than the side, and they open upward. Iconic examples include those on the DeLorean sports car.
  3. Door Handles: Exterior door handles are used to open the doors from the outside, while interior handles are used to open them from the inside. Some modern cars have electronic or touch-sensitive handles.

  4. Power Doors: Many vehicles have power-operated doors, allowing for remote unlocking and automatic opening and closing. This feature is common in modern sedans, SUVs, and minivans.

  5. Window and Mirror Controls: Car doors house controls for the windows and side mirrors, allowing occupants to adjust these features.

  6. Safety Features: Reinforcements within the door structure to enhance safety in the event of a collision.

  7. Design and Aesthetics: Car doors contribute significantly to the overall design and aesthetics of a vehicle, and they often feature stylistic elements and contours that complement the vehicle’s exterior.

Car doors undergo rigorous testing to ensure they meet safety standards and provide reliable functionality. The design and features can vary widely among different types of vehicles, from compact cars to larger SUVs and trucks.


The car body side refers to the exterior surface or profile of a vehicle’s body, extending from the front fender to the rear fender. This area encompasses the sides of the car and includes various design elements and features. Here are key aspects related to the car body side:

  1. Panels and Surfaces:

    • The body side consists of panels that make up the outer skin of the vehicle, covering the structural components beneath.
    • Design elements such as character lines, curves, and contours contribute to the overall aesthetics of the car.
  2. Doors:

    • The body side often incorporates the design of the doors, including their shape, size, and placement.
    • The location of door handles, mirrors, and other features is integrated into the body side design.
  3. Windows:

    • The body side includes the openings for windows, and the design may involve features such as window frames and chrome trim.
    • Some vehicles have distinctive window shapes or side glass configurations that contribute to the overall styling.
  4. Wheel Arches:

    • The body side typically surrounds the wheel arches, framing the wheels and tires.
    • Wheel arches can vary in design, from smooth and integrated to more pronounced and flared.
  5. Character Lines:

    • Character lines on the body side are contours or creases that add visual interest to the vehicle’s profile.
    • These lines can run horizontally or diagonally, contributing to the overall dynamic look of the car.
    • Some vehicles feature body side molding, which is a protective strip along the lower portion of the body side to prevent damage from door dings and minor impacts.
    • In many cars, the fuel door is located on the body side, often concealed within the overall design.
  6. Variations in Design:

    • The design of the body side can vary significantly among different types of vehicles, including sedans, coupes, SUVs, and trucks.
    • Luxury vehicles may have more intricate and detailed body side designs, while practical vehicles may prioritize simplicity and functionality.

The car body side is an essential element of automotive design, influencing the vehicle’s visual appeal and creating a distinct identity for different models and brands. Manufacturers carefully consider the body side design to balance aesthetics, aerodynamics, and functionality.